«Serba-Serbi Nusantara» – a Textbook for Advanced Indonesian • Lesson11—“Is it Allowed to be an Atheist in Indonesia?”
According to the Pew Research Center’s 2012 global study of 230 countries and territories, 16% of the world’s population is not affiliated with a religion, while 84% are affiliated. In many European and East Asian countries there are already more agnostics than adherents to a particular religion. China, Viet Nam, South Korea and Japan are countries with a very high percentage of agnostics. In Japan, about 60% of the population does not identify with any particular religion. In Europe, especially the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) but also Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, and the United Kingdom are all countries with a very large agnostic population.
Indonesia is not an Islamic country, but it is not a secular country either. It is expected that every Indonesian has a religion (agama), or at least is a follower (penganut) of one of the many traditional religions of which many are formally recognised as aliran kepercayaan. But not all Indonesians are religious. According to a 2014 poll by WIN-Gallup International Association (WIN/GIA), about 15% of Indonesians are agnostic, which is comparable to other strongly religious countries such as Poland or Turkey. In my opinion, the WIN-Gallup number is on the high side. From my personal experience it is hard to believe that there are more than 5% of Indonesians who consider them self irreligious, which includes those who are by no means atheists, but either lack religious faith or are indifferent or opposed to religion.
So what do you do if you consider yourself agnostic and live in Indonesia? It can be difficult to explain that you are agnostic as the words agnostik and agnostisisme, even though they are listed in the Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, are unknown to most Indonesians. To them any agnostic person is an atheist (ateis). Sometimes you may hear the term Islam KTP or Kristen KTP. This is how an agnostic Indonesian convey – but usually only to intimate friends – that she considers her selve a nominal Christian or Muslim. The national ID that every Indonesian is required to carry with them, is called Kartu Tanda Penduduk – abbreviated as KTP.
The following is an account of an Indonesian agnostic published in Quora:
Your religion as stated on your ID is only an administrative requirement. It’s not a description of who you truly are. Treat it that way and you will find that it’s not hard to be an atheist/agnostic here. Luckily, Indonesia’s government does not enforce religion (except for Aceh but that is another story). In certain communities, not attending religious services may be frowned upon but you will not be forced to attend.
Personally, I’ve had people ask about my religion – then I promptly tell them my “religion” on my ID card. If pressed for further details I will tell them I do not attend services. This quite often leads to invitations to attend religious services at churches, mosques, temples, etc. I politely refuse and they drop the matter.
I attend a Christian University, so often prayers would be held. During prayers I keep quiet and respect their prayer. The most important thing is to be respectful to other religions.
I have not had much experience living in rural areas. I expect them to be more religious, but Indonesians by culture are mostly a respectful lot. The most important thing is to be polite and respectful and you will always be treated with the same.
As stated above, Iceland is not one of the most secular countries on earth, but it is also a country that in almost all respects is completely the opposite of Indonesia. What do Indonesians think about Iceland? Do they hate the fact that many Icelanders have no religion?
Tontonlah video ini sebelum membaca teks.
1. Apakah orang yang membuat video ini pro atau kontra ateisme?
3. Menurut dia apa kehebatan Islandia?
If you don’t yet know the Sanskrit numbers from one to ten, you may want to learn them now. Some of them are frequently used in Indonesian.
Eka — male or female name given to the first-born child.
ekabahasa — monolingual
keekabahasaan — monolinguality
|2||dvi||dwibahasa — bilingual
dwibahasawan — a bilingual person
dwifungsi — dual-purpose
dwiarti — ambiguous; having two different meanings
|3||trí||trimatra — three-dimensional
tritunggal — an entity of three person or things, trinity
triwulan — quarterly, every three months
trihari suci — Easter Triduum
|4||catúr||caturwulan — a four month study period
caturmatra — four-dimensional
|5||pañca||pancaindera — the five senses
Pancasila — the Indonesian state ideology consisting of five principles
|7||saptá||Saptamarga — the seven ways (oath of allegiance with the 7 principles for members of the Indonesian military)|
|10||dasa||dasawarsa — a decade|
Pancasila (the five principles) is the official, foundational philosophical theory of the Indonesian state:
1. Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa (Belief in the One and Only God)
2. Kemanusiaan Yang Adil dan Beradab (A just and civilized humanity)
3. Persatuan Indonesia (A unified Indonesia)
4. Kerakyatan Yang Dipimpin oleh Hikmat Kebijaksanaan, Dalam Permusyawaratan / Perwakilan (Democracy, led by the wisdom of the representatives of the People)
5. Keadilan Sosial bagi seluruh Rakyat Indonesia (Social justice for all Indonesians)
Each of the five principles is further subdivided into points (butir). For the first principle, there are seven points:
Bolehkah Menjadi Ateis di Indonesia?
Legal texts are among the most difficult texts to read in Indonesia. The following reading is not strictly a legal text as it is the advise section of the webpage Hukum Online. In the text Article 156a is cited from the Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana (Criminal Code):
As you see, the first sentence ends with a colon, not with a full stop. The articles a) and b) are still part of the subject clause that begins with the subject barang siapa (whoever). Because of that, this entire paragraph, which is essentially one clause, is preceded by the predicate dipidana dengan pidana penjara selama-lamanya lima tahun.
The subject barang siapa is followed by a relative clause where the relative pronoun yang has been ellipted (cf. the second example in Sneddon 2.88):
Barang siapa (yang) dengan sengaja di muka umum mengeluarkan perasaan atau melakukan perbuatan:
Who ever in public deliberately expresses feelings or performs acts:
Read the following English phrases and try to guess their meanings in Indonesian. Click “Balik” to check your answer. Then locate the phrases in the text to see them in context.
Jodohkan kata-kata di bawah ini dengan lawan katanya.
Jodohkan kata-kata di bawah ini dengan padan katanya.
You already know the word barang as ‘good, thing, item’. Barang siapa ‘anyone’ and barang apa ‘anything’ are formal variants of siapa saja and apa saja. They only occur as subjects of a clause and are frequently followed by a relative clause. Barang siapa and barang apa are commonly used in legal contexts, or in warnings and appeals:
Indonesian shops usually have a very strict return policy. It is common to see the following sign prominently displayed in a shop:
Barang apa yang dibeli, tidak dapat dikembalikan lagi.
Anything purchased may not be returned.
Barang siapa yang membuang sampah di sini, akan didenda Rp.200.000.
Anyone who disposes rubbish here, will be fined Rp.200,000.
As it is the case with many Indonesian root words, the root cantum by itself does not have any meaning. In order to become meaningful it needs to be combined with an affix. By far the most common affix attached to cantum is meN-…-kan. The Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia has several definitions of mencantumkan, but all of them are rarely used except of this definition: “memasukkan (dalam karangan dsb); memuat”. So the meaning is ‘to insert or include something into a written text; to state, to list, to put, to specify’.
Ia mencantumkan hal itu di dalam skripsinya.
He included that matter in his thesis.
You already know that nouns formed with the circumfix peN-…-an almost always have verbal bases. They refer to the action expressed by the corresponding transitive verb and are often translatable as ‘the act of doing what the verb refers to’. See Sneddon 1.87. Pencantuman can hence be translated as ‘inclusion (of a text)’, but it is often better translated by using a verb because in English, we do not have an equivalent for peN-…-an nouns.
Pemerintah mewajibkan pencantuman label berbahasa Indonesia terhadap produk impor.
The government requires that imported products include a label in the Indonesian language.
The prefix ter- forms stative passive verbs. Mencantumkan has two passive forms: dicantumkan and tercantum. The difference is that the former implies an actor whereas the latter does not imply an actor.
Both dicantumkan and tercantum can be translated in many ways. Possible translations are: ‘included, listed, stated, stipulated, included, mentioned’ etc as seen in the following sentences where the translation is highlighted in bold.
Apa saja yang harus dicantumkan pada CV?
What information needs to be included in a CV?
Kode produk wajib dicantumkan dalam setiap pemesanan.
The product code must be stated in every order.
Agama apa yang tercantum di dalam KTP?
What religion is listed on the ID?
Gunakan kata-kata di dalam tabel untuk melengkapi teks rumpang di bawah ini.
Lengkapilah teks berikut sesuai dengan rekaman.
Ulas dan hafalkan kosa kata di bawah ini.
Usahakan untuk menyelesaikan teka-teki ini dalam waktu kurang dari 2 menit 30 detik.