Padi

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Judul Padi
Penulis Uli Kozok
Jumlah Kata 238
Tingkat Kesulitan
A2PDF

Dikte

Click on the plus sign and read the summary carefully. Pay attention to the spelling of each word as this is a dictation exercise. After you have read the text, close the spoiler, and then complete the dictation exercise.

Summary
Padi merupakan tanaman Indonesia yang paling penting. Padi bisa ditanam di ladang atau di sawah. Padi membutuhkan banyak air. Padi diproses menjadi beras. Nasi adalah beras yang sudah direbus. Nasi umumnya dimakan bersama dengan lauk.

Bacaan

Padi

Padi (bahasa Latin: Oryza sativa L.) merupakan tanaman Indonesia yang paling penting. Indonesia menjadi penghasil padi ketiga besar setelah Tiongkok dan India.

Padi bisa ditanam di sawah atau di ladang. Padi sawah sangat banyak membutuhkan air. Untuk mengairi sawah digunakan sistem irigasi dari mata air, sungai atau air hujan. Sedangkan padi ladang tidak membutuhkan banyak air dan sering ditanam di antara pohon lain seperti jati atau singkong.

Setelah padi dipanen, padi diproses menjadi beras. Beras itulah yang dapat kita beli di toko.

Indonesia menghasilkan beberapa jenis beras. Yang paling umum adalah beras putih. Beras putih digunakan untuk menjadi nasi putih. Nasi putih merupakan makanan utama orang Indonesia dan biasanya disajikan dengan lauk. Lauk adalah makanan seperti daging, ikan, atau sayur yang dimakan sebagai teman nasi.

Beras merah relatif jarang dimakan di Indonesia walaupun lebih sehat karena mengandung banyak gizi.

Selain beras putih dan beras merah ada juga beras ketan. Beras ketan ada yang putih, dan ada juga yang hitam. Ketan hitam umum dimasak dengan santan dan gula merah menjadi bubur ketan hitam.

Nasi adalah beras yang sudah direbus. Beras akan menjadi bubur kalau lama direbus. Bubur ikan dan bubur ayam adalah masakan yang sangat populer di Indonesia.

Orang Indonesia biasanya makan nasi tiga kali dalam sehari: pagi, siang, dan malam. Kalau setelah makan malam masih ada nasi yang tersisa, nasi itu disimpan untuk pagi hari untuk menjadi nasi goreng. Oleh karena itu nasi goreng biasanya dimakan sebagai sarapan.

-lah

Look at Sneddon 3.51-53 for the various functions of the particle -lah. In our sentence Beras itulah yang dapat kita beli di toko -lah functions as a foregrounder. Sneddon writes:

“Besides occurring within the predicate, -lah can be attached to a clause adjunct to foreground it. The adjunct always occurs first in the clause with -lah attached to its last word. Such constructions are usually translated by cleft sentences (see 3.92) in English:”

James Neil Sneddon
  • Sejak tahun itulah saya mulai berkunjung ke Indonesia.
    It was from that year that I began visiting Indonesia.
  • Begitulah katanya kepada saya.
    This is how he spoke (what he said) to me. [lit: These were his words to me]
  • Di kotalah terletak lembaga-lembaga pendidikan dan politik.
    It is in the cities where educational and political institutions are located.

Latihan Pemahaman

Jawablah pertanyaan-pertanyaan di bawah ini.

Dapat

Look at the following two sentences:

  • Padi bisa ditanam di sawah atau di ladang.
    Rice can be grown in irrigated or dry fields.

  • and

  • Beras itulah yang dapat dibeli di toko.
    Beras is the rice that can be bought in shops.

In both cases the verb is passive as the patient (beras and padi) are in initial position. A grammatical construct as “can be” is expressed by either bisa di-… or dapat di-…

Bisa and dapat are synonyms. Bisa is used in colloquial language whereas dapat is typically used in the formal register. The language of the media can be described as a kind of relaxed formal language where both types of register can be employed.

Note that dapat kita beli (can be bought by us) in our text is also a passive construct known as Passive Type 2. If you forgot what that is, consult James Sneddon, Reference Grammar (International Edition) or Comprehensive Grammar (US Edition) 3.28.

Another example of the formal register is setelah (after), which is sesudah in more colloquial Indonesian. Likewise telah is the same as sudah. You never use telah in spoken language whereas both sudah and telah are accepted in written language.

If you don’t know what passive means, look it up here. English has only one passive voice, Indonesian has a few.

Pohon

According to the Encyclopedia Brittanica, a tree is defined as a “woody plant that regularly renews its growth (perennial). Most plants classified as trees have a single self-supporting trunk containing woody tissues, and in most species the trunk produces secondary limbs, called branches.”

In Indonesian, the semantic spectrum of pohon is much wider than that of a tree. Every plant with a stem is considered pohon. This includes all kinds of plants that would never be called a tree, such as chilli and even climbing plants such as green beans, and woody shrubs such as singkong (Cassava)

Merupakan

Merupakan (to be, constitute) is similar to adalah (to be), but there are tow differences: 1. Merupakan can be negated whereas adalah cannot. 2. Merupakan can only be used for nominal subjects (so you cannot say saya merupakan). Even though merupakan is formed with affix -kan it is intransitive. There is hence no passive.

It is frequently used to avoid the use of adalah in two consecutive sentences: Padi merupakan makanan utama orang Indonesia dan biasanya disajikan dengan lauk. Lauk adalah makanan seperti daging, ikan, atau sayur yang dimakan sebagai teman nasi.

Latihan Kosa Kata 2: Terjemahkan

Click to show exercise

Latihan Kosa Kata 3

Latihan Mendengarkan

Dengarkan rekaman berikut untuk melengkapi teks rumpang di bawah ini.

Click to show exercise

Latihan Penutup

Jawablah pertanyaan-pertanyaan di bawah ini.

Bubur Ketan Hitam

Bubur ketan hitam (black rice porridge) is an Indonesian sweet dessert made from black glutinous rice (beras ketan hitam) with coconut milk (santan), and palm sugar (gula merah). Salt and pandan leaves (daun pandan) are added to enhance the flavour. It is often served as dessert or snack, for supper, for tea time, for breakfast, or to break the fast (buka puasa).

There are many recipes available online, such as this. Note that this recipe calls for palm sugar (gula merah) and granulated sugar (gula pasir). In Indonesia, gula pasir is always white sugar, but you can also use brown sugar. However you should not substitute gula merah with either white or brown sugar! Palm sugar has a very distinctive taste, which is completely different from cane sugar or beet sugar. It is made either from the sugar palm (enau) or from the coconut palm. Buy the one from the sugar palm! It is usually sold in round blocks, and it is dark reddish brown in colour.

Not all recipes use pandan leaves, but it does make a difference! Palm sugar and pandan leaves (an Indonesian loanword in the English language) are available at any Asian grocery.

Kosa Kata

[qdeck] [q]padi [a]rice (the plant)
[q]merupakan [a]to be, constitute
[q]tanaman [a]a plant
[q]penghasil [a]producer
[q]ketiga [a]the third
[q]setelah [a]after
[q]Tiongkok [a]China
[q]sawah [a]wet (irrigated)rice field
[q]ladang [a]unirrigated field
[q]membutuhkan [a]need
[q]mengairi (•air)[a] to water, irrigate
[q]irigasi [a]irrigation
[q]mata air [a]a spring
[q]sedangkan [a]whereas, while
[q]pohon [a]any plant that has a stem; shrub; tree
[q]singkong [a]cassava
[q]dipanen [a]harvested
[q]diproses [a]processed
[q]beras [a]husked rice
[q]menghasilkan [a]to produce
[q]beberapa [a]several
[q]jenis [a]sort, kind, species
[q]umum [a]common
[q]nasi putih [a]steamed rice
[q]utama [a]main
[q]lauk [a]side dish
[q]teman [a]companion
[q]beras merah [a]brown rice
[q]mengandung (•kandung) [a]contain
[q]selain [a]besides
[q]santan [a]cocosnut milk
[q]gula merah [a]palm sugar
[q]bubur [a]porridge
[q]direbus [a]boiled
[q]populer [a]popular
[q]kali [a]times
[q]dalam sehari [a]in a day
[q]tersisa [a]left over
[q]disimpan [a]be stored, be kept
[q]sebagai [a]as
[q]sarapan [a]breakfast
[/qdeck]

Daftar Kata

padi rice (the plant)
merupakan to be, constitute
tanaman a plant
penghasil producer
ketiga the third
setelah after
Tiongkok China
sawah wet (irrigated)rice field
ladang unirrigated field
membutuhkan need
mengairi (•air) to water, irrigate
irigasi irrigation
mata air spring
sedangkan whereas, while
pohon any plant that has a stem; shrub; tree
jati teak
singkong cassava
dipanén harvested
diproses processed
beras husked rice
menghasilkan to produce
beberapa several
jenis sort, kind, species
umum common
nasi putih steamed rice
utama main
lauk side dish
teman companion
beras merah brown rice
mengandung (•kandung) contain
gizi nutrients
selain besides
ketan sticky rice
santan cocosnut milk
gula merah palm sugar
bubur porridge
direbus boiled
populer popular
kali times
dalam sehari in a day
tersisa left over
disimpan be stored, be kept
sebagai as
sarapan breakfast