- To practise asking and answering questions that have a simple “yes” or “no” answer.
- To take the first steps in expressing personal preferences.
- To learn the names of some common foods and drinks
Here are some of the frequent words used in this lesson that have appeared in previous lessons. Once you have reviewed the vocabulary items, click on the tab to do exercise 1 (Latihan 1).
duduk, gereja, kantor, makan, mau, minum, pasar, rumah, saya, toko
Use the following flashcards to review the Kosa Kata Lalu vocabulary items.
[q]saya[a]I, me, mine
“Real” Verbs and “Helper” Verbs
Like English, Indonesian has a number of “helper” verbs. These are verb-like words that very often go together with another “real” verb. Some very commonly used helper-verbs in Indonesian are akan (will), suka (like), mau (want) and bisa (can). A less common, but formal equivalent of bisa is dapat (can).
Study the following substitution drill, in which each successive sentence has one word changed. You will hear a full sentence uttered by a female voice followed by a single word uttered by a male voice. Change the sentence by incorporating the word uttered by the male voice.
- You hear: “Saya akan tinggal di rumah.”(I will stay at home) == “makan” (eat)
You repeat: “Saya akan makan di rumah” (I will eat at home)
In order to do this substitution drill, you do not need to see the sentences in writing. However, if you prefer having a visual clue, click on “Transkripsi” to display a transcription of the above sound file.
You can also download the substitution drill and print it out.
Rambu di Jalan Raya Bahasa
The Future Marker Akan
As we have introduced the word akan (will), you may wonder whether Indonesian has tenses. In many languages, including English, it is necessary to specify when an action occurs in relation to the present or in relation to some other event, either in the form of the verb or with obligatory aspect markers (as in ‘ate’, ‘has eaten’, ‘had eaten’, etc.). In Indonesian the form of the verb does not change to indicate tense or aspect. A sentence such as Dia makan carries no indication of whether the verb refers to a regular occurrence or to a single occurrence and, if the latter, when it happens in relation to the present. This is inferred by listeners from the context within which the utterance is made. The future marker akan is usually only used when the listener cannot infer from the context within which the utterance is made, that the event occurs in the future.
Warung, Rumah Makan, Restoran & Resto
Indonesians love to dine out and there is hardly any street where there is not a food outlet. The simplest eateries are called warung. These are either stationary or they are erected in the late afternoon. A meal in such a food stall usually costs the equivalent of 1-2 Euros. The most common term for restaurant is rumah makan and refers to stationary restaurants with chairs rather than wooden benches. The term rumah makan can refer to a cheap restaurant not much different from a warung but can also refer to high-class restaurants. The Dutch loanword restoran is usually reserved for better restaurants.
You will also see restaurants that are called resto. These are trendy restaurants with menus entirely in English. They tend to be expensive, and often serve foreign food. Examples are Samarra: Satay and Wine Resto and Naniura Sushi Bar & Resto in Jakarta or Bawean Resto in Bandung
Good Indonesian food! How many different foods can you identify here? Study the vocabulary for this lesson carefully, then list all the foods you recognise (in Indonesian).
To complete this IndoLingo exercise, record your voice, then download it and name the file Exercise 04-02. Send it to your IndoLingo Instructor. If you are not subscribed to IndoLingo, you may do this exercise as a written homework assignment.
Listen to each of the ten items below and repeat them. Each item gives you the name of a common food or drink. Insert this word after the verb makan or minum in a sentence like the sentences practised in the substitution exercise above. For example, if the cue word is ikan you might record something like: Saya suka makan ikan di pasar.
|1. Air||5. nasi||8. susu|
|2. roti||6. ikan||9. kopi|
|3. teh||7. daging||10. telur|
Asking “Yes or No?”
If you want to ask a question in Indonesian that demands an “either/or” answer – usually YES or NO – you begin the question with the word apakah. Apakah can often be regarded as more or less equivalent to the English “Do you …?” or “Are you …?” For example, in English we can ask “Do you like to drink coffee?” The answer to this is either “Yes” or “No” (which is why we call this kind of question a “yes/no question”). The equivalent question in Indonesian begins with apakah. Study these examples.
Apakah Anda suka makan daging?
Do you like meat?
Tidak. Saya tidak suka makan daging. Saya suka makan ikan.
No. I don’t like meat. I like fish.
Apakah Anda suka makan mi?
Do you like noodles?
Tidak. Saya tidak suka makan mi. Saya suka makan nasi.
No. I don’t like noodles. I like rice.
Apakah Anda suka minum bir di Rumah Makan Pak Kumis?
Do you like drinking beer at Pak Kumis’ Restaurant?
Tidak. Saya tidak suka minum bir di rumah makan. Saya minum bir di rumah.
No. I don’t like drinking beer in restaurants. I drink beer at home.
The Glottal Stop
One of the words most frequently mispronounced by English speaking students is tidak. This is not pronounced like “tee-dack”, but more like “tee-dah” with the final /k/ not actually uttered but caught and trapped in the throat, a bit like the sound you make in English if you are warning a toddler not to do or touch something by saying “ah ah”. Linguists call this sound the glottal stop.
Here you can listen to the word tidak pronounced by two male and one female speaker.
Nanti Dulu… Gua Kepingin Ngomong!
(Hang on a sec! I wanna have my say!)
Like all living languages Indonesian has formal and informal (or slangy) usage. It is important to get to know both ways of talking. You should work hard to get a good command of formal Indonesian (which is what is mostly used in The Indonesian Way) because formal Indonesian is very “portable”. It is used right across the country, whereas informal or slangy usage tends to be more specific to certain places. A good command of formal Indonesian also enables you to converse in various social situations without offending anyone by using slangy language that might be seen as impertinent or sloppy. On the other hand, a good command of informal usage gives you “street cred”.
It enables you to interact with people in a more intimate, relaxed, friendly way – especially with young people. And being relaxed and friendly is important in Indonesia.
Informal usage takes a variety of forms. Indonesian has many pairs of words that mean roughly the same thing, but one of the pair is used in formal situations and the other in informal situations. For example, the formal pronoun Anda (you) becomes kamu in informal or intimate conversation. In some cases formal words are shortened. For example, saja (just) becomes aja, and bukan (no, not) can become kan in some contexts. In other instances words are shortened by dropping a prefix or suffix. For example, berjalan (to walk) becomes simply jalan, and apakah (marker of a “yes/no” question) becomes apa. Elsewhere, informal or slangy words are borrowed from salty local dialects or from regional languages. For example, the formal Indonesian word tidak (no, not) has the informal variants nggak (from Surabaya Javanese), ndak (from the Minangkabau language of West Sumatra) or kagak (from Jakarta Malay). Dapat (can, able to) is mainly used in formal written Indonesian and is almost always replaced by the more informal bisa borrowed from Javanese, and mau or ingin (to want something) can be replaced by the slangy kepingin – also commonly spelled kepengen and kepengin – (from Javanese). Even borrowings from foreign languages can be informal or slangy compared with their standard Indonesian-language counterparts. For example the formal word wisatawan (a tourist) competes with an informal equivalent turis, and the English pronoun you is a commonly heard slangy substitute for the formal pronoun Anda.
As you work through the lessons in The Indonesian Way, from time to time you will be invited to explore informal or slangy usage. These sections will be marked with this icon 🙂 representing informal conversation or chit-chat. Make a start in the next section.
In a Streetside Eatery
Study this simple conversation in formal Indonesian. In case you get stuck, hover your mouse on the Indonesian text and it will give the English translation. Your body language should match the formality of the conversation you are studying. Sit formally upright with a serious look on your face and practice saying the conversation on the left until you have memorised it.
Formal / Serious
Informal / Relaxed
Loll back in your chair. Maybe lift your feet from the floor and sit cross-legged on the chair. Relax and smile. Study the following conversation until you can say it perfectly in a friendly, relaxed way.
Following the model above, write an informal equivalent of the formal dialogue given in the left hand column.
Formal / Serious
Informal / Relaxed
Apakah Anda mau makan nasi?
Tidak. Terima kasih. Saya mau minum kopi saja.
Apakah Anda tidak bisa makan nasi?
Bisa. Saya tidak suka makan di restoran ini.
New Vocabulary for this Lesson
- Please note that all vocabulary items printed in bold may appear in an exam!
- A smiling face 🙂 denotes words that are predominantly used in the informal register.
|akan||will, going to (the word that marks an event that will happen in the future)|
|aku||🙂 I, me (informal when talking to close friends, spouse, etc.)|
|apakah||The word that begins a sentence/clause when you want to ask a “yes/no” question Are you from Bali? Note that informally apakah is simply rendered apa.|
|ayam||a chicken, chicken (meat)|
|bisa||can, able to|
|dapat||can, able to|
|di||at, in, on|
|kamu||🙂 you (informal when talking to small children, close friends, spouse, etc.)|
|kepingin||🙂 want (to), wish (to) (informal). Variants: pengin & kepengin|
|nasi||rice (cooked, ready to eat)|
|nggak||🙂 no, not (informal)|
|roti||bread, a loaf of bread. Also often: a bun, a biscuit, a bread roll|
|suka||to like (someone or something), to like (doing something)|
|tahu||tofu, soybean curd|
|témpé||tempeh (fermented soybean product)|
|tinggal||to live (in a certain place), to stay, to remain|
Use the following flashcards to memorise the newly learned words.
[q]akan[a]will, going to (future marker)
[q]aku[a]I, me (informal)
[q]apakah[a]question marker for ‘yes/no’ questions
[q]bisa[a]can, able to
[q]di[a]at, in, on
[q]ikan[a]fish, a fish
[q]kepingin[a]want (to), wish (to)
[q]nggak[a]no, not (informal)
[q]roti[a]bread, biscuit, cookie
[q]tahu (noun)[a]tofu, soya bean curd
[q]tempe[a]soya bean biscuit, tempeh
[q]tinggal[a]to live (in a certain place), to stay